Current Progressive Dairy digital edition

To blanket or not to blanket?

John Welsh Published on 07 October 2009
Raising calves during colder weather presents a number of challenges that require increased attention to your calf care program.

The primary reason that we discuss cold weather implications for calves, but not for older dairy animals, is that they are uniquely different. Because of their smaller body size, there is a greater surface area-to-body-mass ratio, making them more susceptible to heat loss through a number of processes.

This loss of heat causes the calf to expend more of her energy maintaining core body temperature and reduces her rate of growth, or in extreme conditions causes her to lose weight.



Providing a dry, well-ventilated and draft-free environment should be the primary consideration during cold weather. In the event that available facilities are not sufficient, calf blankets have been marketed as a management tool for raising calves in colder weather.

Blankets serve as a buffer between the calf and adverse conditions in their environment including moisture, cold temperatures and wind.

Research conducted at North Dakota State University found that in cold weather, blanketed calves gained 1.35 pounds daily compared to just 1.06 pounds for their un-blanketed herdmates during the first 21 days of life. Researchers noted that the advantages in rate of gain diminished over time.

Dr. Schroeder, the primary researcher at NDSU, noted that the greatest benefit from blankets came during periods of severe winter weather. He also recommended that blankets be used when temperatures were below freezing.

The advantages of blankets become marginal when daily temperatures rise enough to cause the animal to sweat, then to lose body heat (evaporating that moisture) during the cooler night period.


Dr. Schroeder’s research found that the improvement in rate of gain diminished after 28 days of life. This coincides with the age when many calves are consuming enough starter to have good rumen function, which produces a considerable amount of heat. Additionally, the consumption of starter feed provided additional energy for maintenance and growth.

In summary, blankets can be a useful tool in managing calves during winter weather. Primary consideration should still be given to providing a dry and draft-free environment and ensuring that calves receive enough nutrients through starter and milk replacers.

Blankets are likely to be most beneficial for young calves that are not yet eating ample starter during extended cold spells. PD

—Excerpts from Virginia Tech Dairy Pipeline, December 2008

John Welsh
Dairy Extension
Virginia Tech